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        關于對于我國文學作品中人魚意象演變及其文化內涵網站位置: >> 漢語言文學 >> 中國兒童文學論文 >> 瀏覽文章
        對于我國文學作品中人魚意象演變及其文化內涵

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        中國文學作品中人魚意象演變及其文化內涵內容摘要:關于人魚的傳說歷來受到中國學者的青睞,由于其背后蘊藏著豐厚的文化內涵,這些傳說成為文學創作的豐富題材。本文通過探討對比人魚形象在中國文學中的演變過程,闡述人們通過人魚形象來表達愛欲、死亡等主題的表現方式,分析造成這種現象的民族文化心理,以此表現人魚形象的存在作用和價值。
           關鍵詞:人魚 演變 文化內涵
           中國有關人魚的記載最早見于《山海經》(袁光、孫冬梅 2014)。作為記錄中國神話的重要典籍,《山海經》描繪了眾多神人形象,人魚神人形象是該典籍中 合體類形象之一。該書對人魚的描述首見于《南山經》,“其中多赤鱬,其狀如魚而人面,其音如鴦鴛,食之不疥。”[1]《海內南經》首次提出了鮫人的說法,“伯慮國、離耳國、雕題國、北胸國,皆郁水南。注:離耳,搜離其耳分令下垂以為飾,即澹耳也,在朱崖海諸中;雕題,蔥涅其面,畫體為鱗采,即鮫人也。”[2]其中的魷人外表是人頭魚身,長著四只腳的魚(黃雪敏 2009)。又如《海內北經》記載“陵魚人面,手足,魚身,在海中”。[3]此外,《西山經》中直接提到“人魚”這一說法,“又西五十二里,曰竹山,其上多喬木,其陰多鐵。丹水出焉,東南流注于洛水,其中多水玉,多人魚”[4]。以及在《北次三經》中更為詳細地提出“又東北二百里,曰龍侯之山東,無草木,多金玉。決決之水出焉,而東流注于河。其中多人魚,其狀如鰻魚,四足,其音如嬰兒,食之無癡疾”[5]。根據該魚形狀和叫聲的描述進行推斷,《山海經》記載的人魚很可能是現實中的鯢魚,即“娃娃魚”(黃雪敏 2009;付瑤 2012)。從以上描述可以看出,盡管在《山海經》中人魚有著多種不同的稱呼,如“陵魚”、“赤孺”等,但使用最頻繁的還是“人魚”,且人魚最原始的形象為長得像人形,全身披覆著鱗片,一幅怪獸模樣的水中生物。
           以上記載僅只提及了人魚形象的形態,并未表現出文學色彩。但在《大荒西經》中的描述“有魚偏枯,名曰魚婦。顓頊死即復蘇。風道北來,天乃大水泉,蛇乃化為魚,是為魚婦。顓頊死即復蘇。”[6](袁珂注:據經文之意,魚婦當即顓頊之所化)在這里,“人魚”形象開始和性、生殖有了關系,這種形象或是對以前或當時的現實生活文化的一種文學化反映,在其后文學和藝術創造中,這也成為了“人魚”形象的一種較為普遍的審美構建(付瑤 2012)。
           此后的文獻中,多把“人魚”稱為“鮫人”,“鮫人”形象的出現使“人魚”形象的塑造開始豐富起來。魏晉南北朝時期,曹植在《七啟》說:“然后采菱華,摧水蘋,弄珠蚌,戲鮫人。”講述了曹植在海中與“鮫人”嬉戲的場景,這里的“鮫人”其實就是人魚。晉代張華《博物志》云:“南海外有紋人,水居如魚,不廢織績,其眼能泣珠。”張華所說的鮫人,亦作蛟人,就是中國古代民間傳說中的人魚,它們哭泣的時候,眼淚會化為珍珠。《博物志》中又有記載,“鮫人從水出,寓人家積日,賣綃將去,從主人索一器,泣而成珠滿盤,以與主人。”此處增加了鮫人賣絹的行為。且“寓”、“賣”等字的出現,不同于以往神明對人類的“授”,亦表明人魚與人的地位發生了變化,開始與人平等交流。東晉干寶《搜神記》“南海之外,有蛟人,水居如魚,不廢織績,其眼泣,則能出珠”,這里提到了蛟人會紡織技術,能泣珠,基本是沿襲先前文藝的續作。其后南朝梁任昉在《述異記》中也有對“鮫人”的描述:“蛟人,即泉先也,又名泉客。南海出蛟絹紗,泉先潛織,一名龍紗,其價百余金。以為入水不濡。”這里只提到了鮫人的紡織品,不提泣珠。唐詩中不乏對“鮫綃”、“鮫淚”等的描寫,如李頎在《鮫人歌》中唱到“泣珠報恩君莫辭,今年相見明年期”,以及李商隱在流傳千古的名詩《錦瑟》中說道“滄海月明珠有淚,藍田日暖玉生煙”,又如唐代詩人吳融以《鮫綃》為題寫了一首詩,其中道“莫道不蠶能致此,海邊何事有扶桑。”[7]
           據此可看出,相比于《山海經》中對“人魚”的描寫,魏晉南北朝時期文學作品中對鮫人的敘述更具情節性和動態性,有頭有尾;其故事性則與“鮫人眼淚化珠”的故事模型有關。“以珠報恩”這一情節的出現亦反映出當時人們已看出海洋所具有的巨大財富價值屬性(倪濃水2008付瑤2012)。其次,鮫人“賣絹”、“紡織”等行為的出現,表明鮫人的生活方式逐漸向人類趨近,反映了人魚的人化過程。再次,從《山海經》到唐詩,盡管中國古代文獻中對“鮫人”的記述層出不窮,但相應的外貌描寫不多,多多把它認為是海中奇異的魚類,突出“泣,則能出珠”的特點。最后,鮫人形象的文化內涵更加豐富,這得益于“綃(絹)”、“龍紗”意象的出現。泣“淚”和擦淚的“絹”就這樣開始聯系在一起,以“鮫絹”來代指素絹制成的手帕,使其成為一種詩化意象(倪濃水 2008)。由于文人騷客愛在“鮫絹”上題字作詩,這又使其成為文人們寄托情感之物。如陸游在《釵頭鳳》中提到,“春如舊,人空瘦,淚痕紅浥鮫綃透。”“鮫綃”在這里被用來象征陸游和其表妹唐婉凄美的愛情。
           及至宋朝,人魚意象經過前人的鋪墊和后人的不斷加工與完善,變得更加豐富起來。宋代叢書《太平廣記》對人魚也有記載:“海人魚,東海有之,大者長五六尺,狀如人,眉目、口鼻、手爪、頭皆為美麗女子,無不具足。皮肉白如玉,無鱗,有細毛,五色輕軟,長一二寸。發如馬尾,長五六尺。陰形與丈夫女子無異,臨海娜寡多取得,養之于池沼。交合之際,與人無異,亦不傷人。”在該書中第一次出現了與西方文化中的美人魚形象接近的“海人魚”,強調了女性特征,且對其的描述極為詳盡,凸顯風情與誘惑。在宋聶田所撰《徂異記》中則明確指出了人魚的概念:待制查道,奉使高麗,晚泊一山而止。望見沙中有一婦人,紅裳雙袒,髻發紛亂,肘后微有紅鬣。查命水工以篙扶于水中,勿令傷。婦人得水,偃仰復身,望查拜手,感戀而沒。水工曰:‘某在海上未省見此,何物?’查曰:‘此人魚也。能與人奸處,水族人性也。’”從該段描述中可以看出,該人魚形象不同于之前《山海經》的“陵魚人”、《博物志》的“鮫人”, 這段故事里的“人魚”,同樣是一名女性,這里還強調了她作為魚的習性,和《太平廣記》一致地說明了人魚作為女性的性吸引力,至 全文地址:http://www.qdhlgm.com/zgetwxlw/lw50864.html
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