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        關于論5—7世紀高昌地區的馬匹與絲綢貿易網站位置: >> 經濟論文 >> 國際貿易論文 >> 瀏覽文章
        論5—7世紀高昌地區的馬匹與絲綢貿易

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        5—7世紀高昌地區的馬匹與絲綢貿易[摘要]馬匹是高昌具有軍事和經濟價值的重要戰略物資。高昌馬價昂貴,普通小農幾乎買不起,因而無法從事需要馬匹運輸的絲綢貿易獲取暴利。高昌官府出于軍事、政治及經濟利益的諸多考慮,用差科義務的方式強令官民配養馬匹。這對高昌小農又是一項沉重的負擔。為繳納本已繁重的賦稅、配養馬匹、維持生計,小農必須要進行絲織品生產,向胡商 換取銀錢,充當絲綢貿易諸環節中最低層次的生產者。高昌官府除配養馬匹外,還花費大量銀錢向胡商購買大批馬匹,而這又為胡商在高昌就地購買絲綢等物品提供了資金。因此,高昌官府、絲綢、小農、胡商通過馬匹買賣和配養,緊密地連接在歐亞大陸絲綢貿易體系之中。
          [關鍵詞]高昌;吐魯番文書;馬匹;絲綢貿易;小農
          []A[文章編號]1000-3541(2014)03-0083-04
          Abstract: In Gao, horses is an important strategic material with military and economic value. Gao Ma price is expensive, almost ordinary peasant can not afford a horse, and therefore, need not be engaged in the silk trade transport horses to reap huge profits. Gao official consideration for many military, political and economic interests, by way of poor families with obligations compel officials and people keep horses. This is a small farmer Gao heavy burden. To pay the already onerous taxes with raising horses, subsistence, small-scale farmers must be silk production, sale to Hu providers in exchange for money, act as various aspects of the silk trade in the lowest level of the producers. Gao official with the exception of raising horses, but also spend a lot of money to buy a large number of horses Hu providers, which in turn was purchased locally Gao Hu trader in silk and other items provided funding. Therefore, Gao official, silk, small farmers, Hu providers by horse trading and distribution support, and closely connected to the silk trade system among Eurasia.
          Key words:Gaochang; Turfan Manuscripts; horses; silk trade; smallholders
          中古時代貫穿歐亞大陸的絲綢貿易往往需要跨越沙漠、草地、荒原和戈壁,絲路商人獲得暴利的方式之一是將在一地采購的商品長途販運到另一地 。因此,絲綢貿易離不開駱駝和馬作為主要的交通和運載工具。高昌(今新疆吐魯番地區)之所以在5—7世紀成為絲路東段重鎮,①不僅在于其“南接河南,東連敦煌,西次龜茲,北鄰敕勒”優越的地理位置,也與其“出良馬”,能為絲路商人、使臣提供數量龐大的馬匹有很大關系[1](卷五四,《西戎·高昌傳》)。因此,認識高昌在絲綢之路上的重要地位,絲綢貿易對高昌官民的影響,馬匹不妨是一個新的研究視角。本文擬以吐魯番出土文書中有關5—7世紀高昌地區馬匹價錢、使用、買賣等記載,對高昌地區馬匹與絲綢貿易的關系進行分析。
          一、馬價與小農在絲綢貿易中的地位
          據阿斯塔那48號墓文書五《高昌延昌二十七年(公元587年)四月兵部條列買馬用錢頭數奏行文書》記載,高昌官府買馬三匹用銀錢118文,其中瓜馬一匹價錢為銀錢37文。同墓文書六《六月兵部條列買馬用錢頭數奏行文書》記載,官府買赤馬一匹用銀錢45文。同墓文書八《七月兵部條列買馬用錢頭數奏行文書》記載,官府買紫馬一匹用銀錢37文[2](pp.338-341) 。可見,6世紀后期,高昌的馬價平均在銀錢37文上下。在同時期的高昌普通小農家庭中,一丁占田限額為常田2畝半或部田5畝[3](p.83)。每畝常田一年出租的收入是銀錢6文[2](p.247)。
          在中古時代地主對佃農的剝削率,即地租基本維持在1/2—2/3之間[4](p.9)。那么,常田一畝的收入應在銀錢9—12文。在高昌,小農的收入主要是種田,一戶一丁常田兩畝半的普通小農家庭,一年種田的收入應在銀錢225—30文之間。在麴氏高昌“賦稅則計田輸銀錢,無者輸麻布”[5](卷九七,《高昌傳》),擁有常田2畝半的一丁一戶小農,一年將交納田租銀錢2文。除田租外,這戶小農一年還需要交納或承擔名目繁多的雜稅力役,例如,租酒錢銀錢2文、遠行馬價錢每次每丁銀錢2文、人頭稅丁正錢每丁銀錢6文,按畝征收需交納的大調和分攤的車牛役、按丁征收的小調如每丁1年調薪1車、官捐每丁至少交納絹半匹(約合銀錢5文)、綿半斤(約合銀錢65—66文),按丁征發的運輸性力役丁輸等等 [6](p.71-95)。按畝征收需交納的大調和分攤的車牛役、按丁征收的小調如每丁1年調薪1車、官捐每丁至少交納絹半匹(約合銀錢5 全文地址:http://www.qdhlgm.com/gjmylw/lw49444.html
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