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        關于淺論小學低年級識字教學網站位置: >> 教學論文 >> 初中教學論文 >> 初中數學教學論文 >> 瀏覽文章
        淺論小學低年級識字教學

        論文導讀:繞,換上提手是阻撓,右邊加羽尾巴翹,豐衣足食才富饒——澆、燒、曉、繞、撓、翹、饒。“清、請、睛、情、倩、晴、蜻、精”編為“有水方說清,有言去邀請,有目是眼睛,有心情意濃,麗人留倩影,日出天氣晴,有蟲是蜻蜓,有米人精神。“有水把茶泡,有飯能吃飽。有足快快跑,有手輕輕抱。有衣穿長袍,有火放鞭炮。——泡、飽、跑、抱、袍

        小學低年級識字教學淺議識字是閱讀的基礎,人的一生當中,小學階段的識字量是最大的,大約要學會常用漢字2500個左右。要求能讀準字音,認清字形,了解字義,并能正確地書寫運用。這2500個漢字,在一二年級就要掌握1200多個,占小學識字量的一半。怎樣才能使小學低年級的學生將這些比較枯燥的字,認得清,記得牢,而且能正確運用呢?
          一、比較聯系識字
          在生字中有許多相近的字,在學習時,不讓學生單獨去認字,而是把相近的字一并出現,在比較中識字,在聯系中區別。如:學習“目”字,可與“日”字相比較,“日”太陽只有一個,所以“日”里只有一橫,“目”眼睛有兩只,所以,“目”里有兩橫。如;學習“她”字,可與“他”“地”相聯系比較,在學生觀察比較后,讓他們總結出:這三個字的右邊都是“也”,但又有不同,男人他是亻,女人她是女,地是土。這樣,學生通過比較它們的偏旁及其表示的作用,便不會混淆了。
          二、游戲鞏固識字
          學生學過的字很快會忘記,在教學過程中,巧妙利用游戲,創設豐富多彩的教學情境使學生樂學,喜歡學,有主動學習的意愿,能夠主動識字,快樂識字。學習了合體字后,設計了一個游戲“摘蘋果,找朋友”。把所學字的偏旁與部首分別寫在半個蘋果上,打亂貼于一棵蘋果樹上,要求學生在限定的時間內深思、判斷把偏旁和部首組成字,并讀準了,讀對了,就把“蘋果”送給他。這樣學生不僅學習情緒高漲,而且也培養了學生快速深思、判斷的能力。
          三、結合生活識字
          漢字在日常生活中隨處可見,讓學生養成留意周圍事物,學習生字的習慣。創設識字環境,培養學生自主識字的能力。讓學生將自己的作業本上的名字都表上拼音,讓學生輪流發本子,擴大識字量。還可通過“每日一句話”“每周一首古詩”誦讀活動,讓學生鞏固學過的生字,認識新字,同時訓練提高學生的朗讀能力。通過各種教法,各種途徑,使學生在輕松的環境中熟練地掌握所學的生字,激發了學生的學習興趣,使識字學習由枯燥變為有趣。讓他們獨立探索、大膽想象,去想各種各樣的巧妙辦法,這樣,識字教學會變的很容易。
          四、偏旁識字法(形聲字識字)
          漢字是屬于表意文字,其中百分之七十以上是形聲字。因此,正確掌握形聲字是完成小學識字任務的關鍵之一。在形聲字的教學過程中,要注意分析形聲字形旁的表意功能。在學生學過部分合體字的基礎上,學生基本上了解了常用字偏旁所代表的含義。如木字旁:大多是與樹木有關聯的字:如松、柏、樺、樹、桃、柳、等,代表與水有關聯的字:如河、清、湖、海等,代表與動物有關聯的字:如貓、狗、狐貍等,與人手的動作有關聯的字:如提、抬、挑、擔等。這樣的形聲字有許許多多,知道了偏旁的作用,看看聲旁,就大體知道了這個字的讀音和含義。這樣學生有了認字的積極性,有些字即使沒學也能大體了解字義和讀音。但也有個別字形旁與字義不符的,如學習“犧牲”這個詞,學生知道字義是指為正義事業獻出生命,有的學生提出:“老師,為什么這兩個字是牛字旁呢?”我引導學生通過查字典得出:“犧牲”過去指殺牛、羊等來進行祭祀活動。學生馬上就理解這兩個字的牛旁的含義。
          五、圖畫動畫輔助識字。
          在識字教學中,教師要根據學生思維的特點,引導學生想象,幫助他們把抽象的符號具體形象化,培養學生的識字能力。簡筆畫言簡意賅、形象生動,而且內蘊豐富,給人以極大的想象空間。低年級兒童對圖畫的興趣濃于文字,在生字字形教學中,教師要不失時機地讓學生發揮自己的想象,給生字配上"身體動畫""思維動畫",如:教學"跳、扔、舉、拍、掃、洗、刷、端"一課時,學生運用想象,給生字配上身體動畫,讓字形在腦海里如動畫般流出來,讓一個個靜止的生字都活起來,初步培養他們的識字能力。給字配"畫"恰當地結合在圖畫與文的巧妙聯系中,豐富了學生的想象,使學生生動地識字,有效地提高學習效率。
          六、猜謎語識字
          中國漢字,很多都可成為一則謎語,寓教于樂。猜謎語是學生喜聞樂見的一種游戲,在猜謎的過程中既活躍了思維,開發了智力,同時也加深了學生對字的記憶。運用猜謎語來幫助識字,不失為一種好的識字法。如:一口咬掉牛尾巴——告、兩人橋上走——叢、死對頭——生、上面正差一點,下面少丟一點——步、一月一日非今天——明,這些字謎激活了學生的思維,引發了豐富的聯想,如此簡單而有趣的活動,調動了學生自學生字的興趣。學習過程中,還可以讓學生自編字謎,既能激發學生學習探究的興趣,又教給了學生一種很好的識字策略,提高了學生的自主學習能力。又如“三人同日見,百花齊爭艷。”猜一字(謎底:春)。“又到村里”猜一字(謎底:樹)。在這里把“春”拆成了“三、人、日”,把“樹”拆成了“村、又”,由熟字巧妙地組成生字,學生饒有趣味地在溫習熟字的基礎上學習并掌握了生字。
          七、兒歌識字
          歌謠詞句簡單、形式活潑、旋律優美動聽,深受學生喜愛。在識字教學中,以歌謠的形式幫助學生識字,尋找出隱含在漢字中的童趣,能讓識字成為一種樂趣。如:一只魚,一只羊,熬鮮湯,味道香——鮮。中間有點仔細辨,中間有言來分辯,中間有瓜長花瓣,中間絲線扎成辮——辨、辯、瓣、辮。用水澆,用火燒,東邊日出是拂曉,左邊絞絲彎彎繞,換上提手是阻撓,右邊加羽尾巴翹,豐衣足食才富饒——澆、燒、曉、繞、撓、翹、饒。“清、請、睛、情、倩、晴、蜻、精”編為“有水方說清,有言去邀請,有目是眼睛,有心情意濃,麗人留倩影,日出天氣晴,有蟲是蜻蜓,有米人精神。“有水把茶泡,有飯能吃飽。有足快快跑,有手輕輕抱。有衣穿長袍,有火放鞭炮。——泡、飽、跑、抱、袍、炮”。用兒歌來識記字,讀起來瑯瑯上口,富有趣味性,學生既明了了字義,又認清了字形,還讀準了字音。這樣的策略能讓學生形成一種框架,提高識字能力。
          八、總結記錄法
          許多老師都曾遇到過這樣的情況:學生會一而再,再而三地把同一個字寫錯,之所以會造成這種現象,是由于學生根本沒有動腦深思寫錯的理由,也沒有去想以后該注意什么。我給每個學生發了一本本子,要求學生把自己在每次作業中寫錯的字整理下來,自己分析字形,并寫出注意點,還要經常復習,一來二去學生便不會再犯類似的錯誤了。
          九、復習鞏固法
          學生的稟賦各不 全文地址:http://www.qdhlgm.com/czsxjxlw/lw50460.html
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